Why would you need a leg massager or a foot and calf massager?
If you’re experience pain or stiffness on your foot and calf, then a calf massager is the perfect solution for you. Hiring a professional massage therapist or visiting a spa is expensive and many cannot afford these services regularly.
Foot Calf massagers work on the feet, calves and ankles. They are used while sitting down in a chair. There are a few different shapes and styles but the most popular look is the double massager where both your legs are placed into the machine (Boot Style). They completely surround the feet and the back of the legs to half way up the calf.
Table of Contents
- Best foot and Calf Massager Comparison Table
- Best Leg Massager Reviewed
- #1. “Reflex-4” Foot and Calf Shiatsu Massager [By Human Touch]
- #2. Shiatsu Kneading Rolling Vibration Heating Foot and Calf Massager [by HmRelax]
- #3. ZENY Shiatsu Kneading Rolling Foot Leg Calf Massager
- #4. Giantex Shiatsu Kneading Rolling Vibration Heating Foot.
- #5. TheraSqueeze Pro Foot, Calf and Thigh Massager
- #6. “Reflex-2” Foot and Calf Massager with Patented Figure-8 CirQlation Paddle Technology
- #7. Human Touch “Reflex-6” Foot & Calf Foot Massage Machine
- Cheap alternatives for calf massagers [less than $20]
- Common Causes Of Calf Pain
- How Does A Calf and foot Massager Work ?
- Why You Should Have A Foot Calf Massager
- Best Leg Massager Reviewed
- The Top Medical Benefits Of A Foot Massage
Best foot and Calf Massager Comparison Table
|Image||Product Name||Customizability||Dimensions (L XW XH)||Price|
|1||“Reflex-4” Foot and Calf Shiatsu Massager||Shiatsu 1, Shiatsu 2, Relax, and Refresh||18 x 17 x 19 inches||Check Price|
|2||Shiatsu Kneading Rolling by HmRelax||foot, leg, Heating/vibration|| |
|3||ZENY Shiatsu Kneading Rolling Foot Leg Calf Massager||3 custom modes of foot massage, 3 intensities of calf massage||56*51.5*48 CM||Check Price|
|4||Giantex Shiatsu Kneading Rolling||3 Custom Modes Of Foot Massage, 3 Intensities Of Calf Massage And 3 Levels Of Heating||17.7"X17.7"X19.7"||Check Price|
|5||TheraSqueeze Pro Foot, Calf and Thigh Massager||3 levels of massage intensity and other many options.||22.4 x 21.8 x 27.6||Check Price|
|6||Foot Massage Machine Shiatsu massager||Features multiple settings for heat , air compression pressure and vibration||22 x 11 x 17.7 inches||Check Price|
|7||“Reflex-2” Foot and Calf Massager by Human Touch||3 Auto-Massage Wellness Programs: Relieve, Renew, and Soothe.||13" h||Check Price|
Best Leg Massager Reviewed
#1. “Reflex-4” Foot and Calf Shiatsu Massager [By Human Touch]
Reflex-4 features 4 auto-massage programs – Shiatsu 1, Shiatsu 2, Relax, and Refresh. You could additionally choose the tilt of the massager from the two available options, which will
allow you to match the position of the body with the device.
The figure-eight technology delivers massage of the calves in upward, rolling, or wave-like motions. This allows for improved blood circulation in the body, which facilitates the transport of fresh nutrients to the calves and feet.
Thanks to the CirQlation technology, Reflex-4 can provide its users with life-like massage through its robotic actuators. The under-foot rollers make sure that your feet get all-around treatment.
The extended height of 13 inches ensures that the surface of the calves is covered as much as possible. The rollers support up to 14 men’s shoe size, which means that it will be enough
for the most of the people.
The sleeves of the massager are removable, which makes them washable.
- Dimensions 18 x 17 x 19 inches
- Weight 27lbs
- Power supply 110-120V 60Hz
- Modes Shiatsu 1, Shiatsu 2, Relax, Refresh
- Max shoe size 14 men’s size
- Warranty 1-year limited
- Comes with 4 massage modes.
- Ensures improved blood circulation thanks to the patented 8-figure technology
- Life-like robotic actuators.
- Under-foot massage rollers to massage the sole and the heel.
- Removable and washable sleeves.
- Extended height of 13 inches.
- Supports up to 14 men’s shoe size
- No remote control
#2. Shiatsu Kneading Rolling Vibration Heating Foot and Calf Massager [by HmRelax]
HmRelax multifunctional foot and calf massager offers 5 massage modes, including shiatsu, kneading massage, rolling,vibration, and heating. According to the manufacturer, regular use can make your legs look nicer.
This leg massager is potent enough to provide you with all-around massage. The ergonomic design embraces the sensitive points of your calves and feet, which will treat pain and stress in the legs and improve blood circulation.
Unlike the previous model, HmRelax massager can be used to massage your feet and calves separately, so there is no need to run the whole device if you just want to relieve pain in the sole of the feet. You could choose between 3 intensity modes each for the calves and
Additionally, this massager has pressure nodes to help you finally get rid of that annoying foot pain.
This model can be operated via the included remote control, so you don’t even need to lean to reach the on-board control panel.
- Weight 24lbs
- Power supply 110V 60Hz
- Power consumption 80W
- Modes Shiatsu, kneading massage, rolling, vibration, heating, plus 3
intensity modes each for calves and feet (custom).
- Warranty 1-year limited
- 5 massage modes.
- Delivers 360-degree coverage for improved blood circulation and stress relief.
- 3 separate feet and calves massage modes.
- Pressure nodes at the bottom for thorough feet massage.
- The fabric zips off for washing.
- Comes with a remote control.
- Very stong vibration
#3. ZENY Shiatsu Kneading Rolling Foot Leg Calf Massager
As you would expect, the massager does pretty good in the fields of pain relief and muscle relaxation. Like the previous model, you could focus on your calves and feet separately.Just choose one of the 3 included intensity modes.
ZENY leg massager also has pressure nodes placed under your feet for better stimulation of the sensitive areas.
Despite being so similar to the HmRelax massager, this one doesn’t come with remote controls, so you will have to reach for the inbuilt panel every time you need to do some adjustments.
The manufacturer states that the machine may be inconvenient for calves with more than 4 inches in diameter. Additionally, the Amazon description says that the model supports 9.5 shoe size at most. However, the customer reviews show that people with 11-14 shoe size
should not have any problems with the massager.
- Weight 30lbs
- Power supply 110V 60Hz
- Power consumption 80W
- Modes Shiatsu, kneading massage, rolling, plus 3 intensity modes each for
calves and feet (custom).
- Delivers pain relief, relaxation, and improved blood circulation.
- 3 massage modes.
- Separate treatment of calves and feet.
- Has underfoot pressure nodes.
- The cover is washable
- Has no remote control
- Its quite Heavy
#4. Giantex Shiatsu Kneading Rolling Vibration Heating Foot.
Giantex leg massager comes with 5 massage modes – shiatsu, kneading, vibration, rolling, and heating. Additionally, it offers 3 custom modes for feet, 3 intensity modes for calves,
and 3 heating levels.
The ergonomic design paired with 8 feet and 4 calves massage discs allow for a 360-degree massage. All in all, it will deliver pretty much the same level of pain relief as the previous models we examined.
An interesting feature is the massager’s 15-minute auto shutoff, which will add some more safety to the device’s use.
- Weight 34lbs
- Dimensions 17.7×17.7×19.7 inches
- Power supply 110V 60Hz
- Power consumption 80W
- Comes with the following Modes: Shiatsu, kneading, rolling, vibration, heating. 3 intensity modes each for calves and feet (custom), 3 heating modes.
- 5 massage modes plus 3 heating modes.
- 3 custom modes for feet and 3 for calves.
- Ergonomic design combined with 8 discs for feet and 4 for calves delivers all-around relief.
- Automatic 15-minute shutoff.
- Washable cover.
- Heats only in the front of the foot area.
#5. TheraSqueeze Pro Foot, Calf and Thigh Massager
TheraSqueeze leg massager is perhaps the most remarkable model we are going to examine today. Unlike the others, this one treats not only your feet and calves and your thighs as well.
This model features deep-kneading, squeeze, vibration, as well as heat therapy modes. Independent controls for each section of your legs will let you separately select one of the 3 inbuilt intensity modes. Auto mode will do programmed and all-leg massage.
The massager features a 20-minute auto shutoff timer.
According to TheraSqueeze, use of this massager can accelerate muscle recovery, relieve muscle pain, reduce heart rate, improve blood circulation, and eliminate stress. Well, it really should be doing all these for its price! Read more on Massage Chairs.
- Weight 48.5lbs
- Dimensions 23.1 x 22.6 x 28.3 inches
- Power supply 120V 60Hz
- Modes Deep-kneading, squeeze, vibration, heating.
- 3 inbuilt intensity modes for separate foot, calf, and thigh massage.
- Auto mode for full-leg treatment.
- Warranty 1-year limited
- Equiped with 3 massage modes plus heat therapy.
- Separate intensity adjustment for leg segments.
- Has 20-minute shutoff feature.
- Delivers several benefits, including accelerated muscle recovery, stress relief, and better sleep.
- Removable and washable cover
- No remote control.
#6. “Reflex-2” Foot and Calf Massager with Patented Figure-8 CirQlation Paddle Technology
A product of the Human Touch Company, this machine will be an absolute delight to your feet. It comes with a refined design, which although sober and black is pretty modern. It measures 18 by 20 by 16 feet and weighs an approximate 21 pounds, and with its side-placed hands, it allows more comfortable and better mobility.
Moreover, on its bottom front, it has non-skid (two) floor protectors for optimal stability not to mention an ergonomically designed and lifted bottom from to perfectly match the body posture. Similar to its counterpart, it also includes Figure 8 patented technology that boosts blood circulation and a display option that functional! Displays automated wellness options to choose from mainly renew,’ soothe and relieve’ (indicated in P2, Run, and P1).
Reflex-2’ foot and calf massager with patented figure-8 cirqlation paddle technology provides a gentle flow which subsequently relieves any tension or soreness present in your ankle area or calves and also combines this with under-foot rollers to offer vigorous massage to the heels and sole area.
Finally, reflex-2’ foot and calf massager also doubles as a typical therapeutic device, and this is mainly because it features pre-set wellness programs and specific provisions such as circulation technologies and Figure 8 provisions designed to precisely enhance the overall circulation of blood in the body.
- Measures 18 by 20 by 16 feet;
- weighs 21 poundsFeatures non-skid (two) floor protectors for optimal stability
- Displays automated wellness options to choose from mainly renew,’ soothe and relieve’ (indicated in P2, Run, and P1).
- Patented Figure-8 Technology
- Stimulating under-foot rollers
- Easy-Carry Handle
- Ergonomic Styling.
- Exclusive technology options such as CirQlation and Figure 8 technologies
- Offers Human-like massage
- Reasonably priced
- Never compresses the feet
- Pre-set programs
- No heat
#7. Human Touch “Reflex-6” Foot & Calf Foot Massage Machine
If you are looking for home-based massage therapy, the human touch “reflex-6” foot & is the best option. It has a whole dimension of 18 by 20 by 15 inches and a compact but substantial weight of about 21 lbs. This massage machine is a multipurpose system not only massaging your foot, but also offers an extra advantage to your feet providing you exceptional relaxing feeling.
The 6’ foot calf and foot massager comes with a design that features a roller on the massager’s plate bellow offering perfect massage. Every roller play is steadily and speedily and complemented with the harder foot portion and efficiency of the heel offering maximum foot muscle relaxation.
What’s more, human touch “reflex-6” foot & calf massager comes with an upward eight rolling wave that aids in circulation not to mention its exclusive Figure 8 technology provision that boosts its effectiveness to top-level status. Finally, it has a control system on its upper side, allowing easy running and relief of tense and stress.
- Patented Figure-8 Technology.
- Measures 18 by 20 by 15 inches; Weighs 21lbs.
- Stimulating under-foot rollers.
- Patented Warm Air Technology.
- Washable and Removable Sleeve Inserts.
- Extended Height
- Simple to control
- Reasonable price
- Features patented-8 technology
- Appealing look
- Does not include personalization modes
Cheap alternatives for calf massagers [less than $20]
If you are in a tight budget, then consider the following massagers for blood circulation. They work just as the electric massagers only that you have to manually do all the work.
#8. Top Rated Muscle Roller Stick (18.3″)
Our bodies are fragile, and at times if we do not adequately take care of them, they become susceptible to injuries-some life-threatening. Nonetheless, one way to get rid of this problem and maintain a flexible and robust body that can escape common and preventable injuries is to go through with massages.
Top Rated 18.3” muscle roller stick is a convenient tool that you can use to massage yourself at any particular moment. It belongs to the class of exclusive muscle roller stick brands that boost flexibility, enhance blood circulation and also help you minimize pain.
For anyone that is in the world of fitness or just in need of therapy, this 18.3-inch Top rated muscle roller stick is precisely the ideal option for you. It can also be an excellent aid for trainers, doctors, and athletes among other individuals.
Top rated muscle roller stick has a compact design and is such a breeze to carry around and move around with and works well to relieve any injuries, pains or soreness of any particular kind.
This muscle roller stick relieves muscle tension and subsequently stimulates the muscle to allow better circulation of blood enabling enhanced mobility and of course overall body flexibility. You can use it during the pre-exercise period to prevent getting injuries and during post-workout to allow fast recovery.
- Compact Size allowing easy mobility
- Measurements: 18.3-inches
- Used during the pre-exercise period to prevent getting injuries
- Used during the post-workout to enable fast recovery.
- Compact design
#9. Idson Muscle Roller Stick for Athletes-18 Inches
The IDSON roller stick is a small and well-made tool that helps in easing and relieving any muscle soreness in addition to facilitating fast recovery and minimizing pain and stiffness prior to and after exercises, workouts, and training.
With constant use, it allows you to improve your blood circulation, strength while simultaneously minimizing your overall risk of injury.
It features a high design that is made using premium grade robust materials and complemented by polypropylene and thermoplastic rubber handles that give it a sturdy ergonomic grip. Moreover, Idson muscle roller stick for athletes also includes nine independent ABS rollers embedded in a rod core (steel-made).
As aforementioned, it has a compact design with dimensions of 18 by 1.5 inches not to mention a lightweight of about 9 oz. This makes it convenient to carry around and easily packable and portable for various activities. Also, it is also water-resistant and robust and with its effectiveness is recommended for numerous roles such as enhancing physical exercise and workout experience while even hastening recovery.
Finally, Idson Muscle Roller Stick is accompanied by an exclusive 100 % money guarantee where in case you are not fully satisfied, you are eligible for a full refund courtesy of the manufacturer policy provision and also comes with an amazingly affordable price making it accessible for a wide array of individuals.
- Great design
- Robust: made using premium grade robust materials
- Features polypropylene and thermoplastic rubber handles
- Features nine independent ABS rollers embedded in a rod core (steel-made).
- Durable and resilient courtesy of its underlying thermoplastic rubber material
- Dimensions: 18 x 1.5 inches
- Affordable price
- 100 % money back guarantee
- Great design
#10. Elite Sportz Massage Roller Stick
Enhance your everyday workout experience by purchasing this fantastic massage stick courtesy of Elite Sportz Equipment. Ideally crafted to suit runners, Elite sportz massage roller tsick improves the circulation of blood aside from boosting flexibility while also simultaneously minimizing your overall risk of camps. It comes with comfortable handles which assist you in maintaining a firm grip to have an enjoyable massaging experience.
This roller targets tight and sore muscles, and prevent the development of cramp. This is made possible by the roller’s smooth rolling action implemented by its characteristic 2mm gap which is between every roller, therefore, preventing them from pulling the hair on your legs.
You can rest assured that you can quickly take this accessory with you anywhere
since it measures just 16 inches long. What’s more, this roller stick is accompanied by a lifetime
warranty in case of defects.
- Targets tight and sore muscles while preventing cramps
- 2mm gap between rollers to allow a Sturdy, comfortable and smooth rolling action
- Compact and stunning design for convenience
- 100 % MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE
- Lifetime manufacturer warranty
- Compact and conveniently small
- Easily portable.
- Ideal for individuals with lesser muscles
- Beautiful design.
Common Causes Of Calf Pain
Usually when we suffer calf pain, it’s the result of running, or some other physical activity, where the muscle has become stressed or strained. Sometimes the pain comes in the form of a cramp, which can be very uncomfortable indeed.
Cramps often result from dehydration or a deficiency of potassium, but in the case of the calf, prior physical activity is almost always the underlying cause. The pain can be due to a fast game of tennis, a long run or jog, or simply going up and down a ladder several times, especially when the use of a ladder is a seldom event.
Too Much Blood, Too Little Blood
Calf muscles often become sore when they don’t get enough blood, or in some rare instances, too much. Muscles usually hurt because of a buildup of lactic acid, a normal condition we at times experience when exercising. When the blood supply to the muscle is out of whack though, this can be a much more serious problem.
If the calf muscles start to hurt during the normal course of events, say when one is simply walking along, a general deficiency in the supply of blood to the calf muscles may be the problem. If the heart and arteries are not supplying the calf muscles with the blood they need, calf pain can be the result.
The underlying cause is quite often atherosclerosis, more commonly known as hardening of the arteries. At other times, the calf muscles may be getting too much blood, and calf pain will result from that condition as well.
When too much blood is the issue, it is usually a result a problem in the veins, where the blood, while circulating, is not being moved away from the calf muscles fast enough, and backs up into the muscle.
An insufficient supply of blood is the far more common of the two and is called claudation, which we experience as cramping, and which is for all practical purposes a heart attack, but in the calf.
Unlike a true heart attack, this condition usually goes away shortly with no damage done, though the pain may be severe for a few minutes. Immediate resting of the calf muscle is the best treatment.
If claudation occurs at rest, and occurs frequently, then something more serious is in the works. A condition called thrombophlebitis—an inflammation and clotting in the veins, may have developed, and is potentially quite serious, as clots can break free form the area of the legs or calf, and travel elsewhere in the body.
Athletic injuries are fortunately more common than the aforementioned causes of calf pain, though still can hurt. There are three defined levels of calf strain. A level one strain involves microscopic tearing of muscle tissue.
Some calf pain or soreness will be experienced at this level, with rest and ice being the prescribed course of treatment. A level two strain is a more serious tear, much more painful, and often takes a month or two to completely heal.
A level three calf strain is one we don’t even want to think about. There is a general tearing of muscle or tendon, and the associated calf pain can be almost unbearable at first. Whatever the level, rest and ice make up the usual treatment, though at level 3, surgery may be necessary.
How Does A Calf and foot Massager Work ?
These leg massager machines work on two levels:
The first level is that they massage the feet and calves using a vibrating action. This action is both soothing and tension reducing on the legs and feet. If you are on your feet all day in your job then sinking them into a foot calf massager is a great way to unwind at the end of the day.
The other level that most foot calf massagers work on is by stimulating pressure points in the bottom of the feet to reduce stress and improve general well being. The principle behind this form of therapy is known as reflexology.
Reflexology is defined as a natural healing art that is usually down by a skilled person. The foot calf massager is the equivalent of such a natural healer in machine form.
The basis of reflexology is that parts of the bottom of the feet or pressure points correspond to every part, gland and organ of the body. When a massaging action is applied to these pressure points it is thought that it can relieve tension, improve circulation and helps promote the natural function of the related areas of the body.
Why You Should Have A Foot Calf Massager
These days, life has just become so darn hectic. So after a long day’s work, it is great to just kick off your shoes and get a good old foot rub. But let’s look deeper into that with these advantages of actually having your very own foot calf massager.
More than just a foot rub
As mentioned earlier, when the day is over, it is pretty much ideal to go home, put up your feet, and get a foot rub. So can you imagine if you could have even more than that? Having your very own private masseuse is out of the question, but you can always have your very own foot and calf massager. Sure, the features are different for different brands and models, but you can expect to have one heck of a massage.
With various functions, such as different massage modes through the use of vibration, you can experience kneading, shiatsu for your soles, etc. Plus, most of these are even heated, which just adds to the whole comfort level. Also, it is called foot and calf massager for a reason- not only will your feet get pampered, but so will your calves.
So you get all of this without having to do any work at all. Just sit back, slip your feet in, push a button, and the rest is up to your massager. How great is that?
It is true that the human touch will always be better. But think about how expensive going to a massage clinic or making an appointment at a spa is. With the tough economy nowadays, people want to save.
So even if the initial shell out may be more pricey (since if you are getting a foot and calf massager, it is wise to choose the more expensive ones and think of it as a worthy investment), in the long run, it is much cheaper than going to see a pro.
That is just thinking of the cost of the masseuse or the spa. You also have to factor in how much you spend to get there and get back home too. Not to mention the time spent on the commute.
Another great thing about owning a foot and calf massager is that unlike having an entire massage chair, these are much smaller which makes them much more portable.
That means that you can even take one to your office if you want and let it do its magic while you are sitting behind a desk doing some paper work. You won’t even have to wait till clock out.
Another benefit regarding the size of virtually all foot leg massagers is that stage will not be a problem. You can easily make some space for it in your closet or you can even just slide it under your bed. Considering the style, you could probably even just leave it in a corner of a room or something like that.
The Top Medical Benefits Of A Foot Massage
We all know that nothing beats putting your feet up and giving them a good old rub after a long day’s work. But there is much more to getting a foot massage than just easing away the pain. So take a look at the top medical benefits of a foot massage. If done properly, you too can take full advantage of these.
Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Foot massage and reflexology can actually be used on patients who suffer from diabetic foot ulcers. Studies have shown that this paired with the proper medication, this kind of therapy can actually be used to speed up the healing process. Basically, what this does is that it improves the overall circulation and may very well be used as a supplement for other diabetic foot ulcer treatment.
Acupressure has been shown to have positive effects on people who suffer from peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Peripheral artery disease, put simply, is pretty much when the arteries get harder and narrower. This then causes problems with blood flow by decreasing it altogether.
When dealing with the occlusive kind, this basically means that there is decreased blood flow in the lower legs reaching down to the feet depending on how serious the case is. As mentioned earlier, acupressure is actually used to improve circulation, hence, increase the blood flow once again.
Believe it or not but acupressure, massage, and reflexology actually help cancer patients. Now, this is obviously no cure, but it does make dealing with the symptoms and side effects much more manageable. Studies have shown that patients who use these methods have lower anxiety levels, lower pain intensity, and even less nausea than those who do not opt for this kind of therapy.
High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is actually quite common among Americans as they get older. Based on research done by the American Heart Association, one out of three adults has high blood pressure. Now, reflexology is no cure either, however, studies have shown that some of the advantages of having this treatment is that although it does not lower the diastolic number, it does lower the systolic blook pressure significantly.
Reflexology and acupressure are great for people who have come out of an operation of sorts. This kind of therapy is supposed to help the patients deal with pain that they may experience after surgery. Paired with proper medication, aside from decreasing the physical pain, studies show that it also leads to a decreased heart and respiratory rate.
These are the top medical benefits of a foot massage. You must remember though that this kind of therapy is not a cure. So do not expect a miracle. You cannot rub your disease away.
However, acupressure and reflexology do help the people who suffer from these terrible diseases listed above by making the pain, nausea, and other side effects and symptoms much more bearable. This actually even increases their overall life satisfaction to some degree.
A foot and calf massager is a great way to get a foot massage in your own home as often as you like. In fact many people use these machines to get circulation back into their lower legs and feet. They are great for diabetics who also have poor circulation to the extremities. A popular massaging machine at the moment is the life power foot ankle leg knee Massager with heat Ttherapy. Check it out if you want to enjoy a foot and lower leg massage.
Popular Brands of Leg and Foot Massager
Human Touch make quite a few varieties of foot calf massagers. They seem to specialize in Ottoman style massagers. I think the basic idea behind the Ottoman style is to massage the feet and legs but also look good so that you can have them in your living room as a piece of furniture. They come in different colors and even fabrics and can look quite stylish.
Other popular brands include Qlive, 3Q, Emson U-Comfy, OSIM and Prospera. They seem to go for the more practical looking machine that completely covers the feet and lower legs. They might not look as good as a piece of furniture but do a good job at massaging the feet and calves and applying reflexology to the healing of the body.
They have more features and include various speeds of vibration or types of actualization. They kind of look like two ski boots joined together and, in fact, would be a great way to relax after a busy day of skiing.
Before You Purchase The Leg Massager
Determine your needs for the leg calf massager. Is the purchase due to sports, health reasons, walking and standing or for mere relaxation? The purpose behind the purchase will help contribute to the type of leg massager you decide on buying.
Size of the massager machine will play a big role in the deciding factor. The final size of the leg massager will decide whether you can travel with the massager or have a deluxe chair in the living/family room.
These massagers can provide relief from strains you have endured or to just relax your tired legs, feeling re-energized. With a wide selection of sizes, there is an option for everyone available on the market!